Women’s History Month: Women of color whose names you should know

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These leaders — Black, Latina, Asian, Arab, Native American — in varied fields, broke both gender and racial barriers as they made history. Here is a by-no-means-comprehensive primer recognizing 36 women of color, past and present:

Peggy Alexander and Diane Nash

Peggy Alexander and Diane Nash, pictured in the middle in the photo above, participated at lunch counter sit-ins during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement and were some of the first African Americans served lunch at a previously all-white counter, along with Matthew Walker and Stanley Hemphill.

Maya Angelou

Maya Angelou was a Pulitzer prize-nominated poet and civil rights activist. Her first autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings received critical acclaim for its depiction of racism and sexual assault. A leader in black feminism, Angelou worked with Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement.

Ella Baker

Ella Baker was a civil rights activist who founded the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a prominent organization in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement that united its young leaders. Baker worked with other leaders, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. and Thurgood Marshall.

Monifa Bandele

Monifa Bandele works as an advocate for food justice at MomsRising, a grassroots organization aimed at empowering mothers politically and educating people on issues that women and mothers face.

Grace Lee Boggs

Grace Lee Boggs, the daughter of Chinese immigrants, was a prominent writer and activist who worked closely with black Marxist and black power leaders like Malcolm X and her husband James Boggs during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement.

Charlotte Hawkins Brown

Charlotte Hawkins Brown was born next door to a plantation in Henderson, N.C., but moved to  Cambridge, Mass., as a young girl. Her mother made sure that Brown received a good education, and a chance encounter with Alice Freeman Palmer, president of Wellesley College, resulted in her having an influential mentor. Brown eventually returned to North Carolina to open the innovative Palmer Memorial Institute, a prep school for African-American children. More than 1,000 students graduated from the Institute in Brown’s 50-year presidency. She also spoke out against Jim Crow laws.

Melanie Campbell

Melanie Campbell is the president and CEO of the National Coalition on Black Civic Participation, which seeks to increase black voter participation.

Shirley Chisholm

Shirley Chisholm was the first black woman elected to U.S. Congress in 1968, and later became the first black candidate for a major party’s nomination for president as a Democrat.

Laverne Cox

Laverne Cox, star of Orange Is The New Black, became the first transgender actress to play a transgender network-TV series regular on CBS’ Doubt. “I think that talking about diversity, talking about race, talking about gender is important,” she said.

Angela Davis

Born in Birmingham, Ala., Angela Davis rose to prominence during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement due to her involvement with the Communist party. She was targeted by the FBI, making its 10 Most Wanted List, and later imprisoned but then acquitted on murder and kidnapping charges in association with a courtroom attack during the trial of the Soledad Brothers, three African-American inmates charged with the murder of a white prison guard. She has been a professor and author and today focuses on battling the “industrial prison complex” in the U.S. as well as the role of black women and the rise of intersectionality in feminism.

Ava DuVernay

Ava DuVernay was the first black woman nominated for a Golden Globe for best director for her movie Selma. Her documentary 13th was nominated for an Oscar this year. She’s also the first woman of color to direct a live-action film with a budget exceeding $100 million (A Wrinkle In Time).

Alicia Garza

Alicia Garza, along with Opal Tometi and Patrisse Cullors, co-founded the Black Lives Matter movement in 2013 after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the Trayvon Martin murder trial.

Roxane Gay

Roxane Gay is a writer whose collection of essays in Bad Feminist explores what the word “feminist” has come to mean today and how attitudes around the term have shaped women’s progress.

LaDonna Harris

LaDonna Harris is a Native American activist and member of the Comanche tribe. She is the founder and president of Americans for Indian Opportunity and served on the National Indian Opportunities Council as President Lyndon B. Johnson’s appointee. Harris was also an honorary co-chair for the Women’s March on Washington.

Dorothy Irene Height

Dorothy Height served as president of the National Council of Negro Women for 40 years. Awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994, Height worked as an educator and activist seeking to increase political rights for African American women.

Dolores Huerta

Dolores Huerta is a labor activist and co-founder of the National Farmworkers Association, now the United Farm Workers. She has advocated for immigrant and Latino rights in the United States. Huerta also served as an honorary co-chair for the Women’s March on Washington.

Carol Jenkins

Carol Jenkins is an Emmy-award winning TV anchor and journalist. She was a co-host of Positively Black on NBC in New York, one of the first shows dedicated to predominately black issues.5

Avis Jones-DeWeever

Avis Jones-DeWeeve is the former executive director of the National Council of Negro Women and works today as a female empowerment and workplace diversity consultant.

Barbara Jordan

Barbara Jordan was a prominent politician and civil rights leader who was the first black woman from the South elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. Barbara Jordan incisiveness as a member of the House Judiciary Committee during the Richard Nixon impeachment hearings gained her national attention. In 1976 she became the first African-American woman to give the keynote speech at a Democratic National Convention. She was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1990 and received a Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994.

Coretta Scott King

Coretta Scott King was a leader in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement and wife of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. After her husband’s death, she continued his work advocating for African Americans’ rights and became a leader in the women’s rights, LGBT rights and anti-apartheid movements. In her memoir, she reiterates how black women, pivotal to the Civil Rights Movement, were too often denied top leadership positions, and how she encountered resistance from some of her husband’s compatriots.

Winona LaDuke

Winona LaDuke is a Native American and environmental activist. She was Ralph Nader’s Green Party running mate, a vice presidential nominee, in 1996 and 2000. An economist, she has advocated for tribal land protection and sustainable economic development.

Audre Lorde

Audre Lorde was a self-proclaimed black lesbian feminist warrior poet. She wrote 12 poetry collections and five books of prose, including A Burst of Light, which won a National Book Award.

Tamika Mallory

Tamika Mallory is an African-American civil rights activist, former executive director of the National Action Network and co-chair of the Women’s March on Washington.

Wilma Mankiller

Wilma Mankiller was the first woman to serve as chief of the Cherokee Nation and she fought for the rights of women and Native Americans. She led Cherokee Nation from 1985 to 1995 and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Bill Clinton in 1998. “She understood that great leadership begins with the women — that’s our long, cultural tradition,” said Chad Smith, who was chief when she died in 2010. “If I had one word to frame her, it would be patriot. A patriot is one who gives her all for her people.” Gloria Steinem spoke at her memorial service.

Janet Mock

Janet Mock is a transgender activist and writer whose memoir Redefining Realness: My Path to Womanhood, Identity, Love & So Much More made the New York Times’ bestseller list.

Carmen Perez

Carmen Perez is a civil rights activist focusing on racial inequalities in criminal justice, and she served as a national co-chair for the Women’s March on Washington. “I want young girls to know they are powerful. They are necessary and they can become the leaders of the next generation,” she said.

Ersa Poston

Ersa Poston served as president of the New York Civil Service Commission starting in 1967 and in 1977 became the first black woman appointed to the federal Civil Service Commission.

Sylvia Rivera

Sylvia Rivera was one of the instigators of the Stonewall uprising and a founding member of the Gay Liberation Front. A Puerto Rican transgender woman, she fought for the protection and safety of all trans people.

Audrey Rowe

Audrey Rowe is the administrator for the Food and Nutrition Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, where she works to provide access to healthy and affordable food for low-income families.

Linda Sarsour

Linda Sarsour served as a national co-chair for the Women’s March on Washington and executive director of the Arab American Association of New York. She is a Palestinian American who works as an activist for Muslim American rights.

Madonna Thunder Hawk

Madonna Thunder Hawk is a Native American activist and leader in the American Indian movement, which works toward Native American rights and sovereignty. A member of the Oohenumpa band of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, she is “grandmother to a generation of Native American activists,” according to the website for the advocacy group the Lakota People’s Law Project, where she is principal organizer and Tribal Liaison.

Harriet Tubman

Born into slavery, Harriet Tubman escaped to Philadelphia in 1849 only to return to the South to help hundreds of slaves reach freedom through a network of safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. Tubman also served as a spy for the Union Army during the Civil War and will soon replace Andrew Johnson on the $20 bill.

Nanye-hi or Nancy Ward

Nanye-hi was born into a powerful Cherokee Wolf clan in what is now Tennessee. Despite a childhood  filled with violent encounters with both Europeans and other tribes, including battles she joined alongside her husband — even rallying her tribe to victory after he was shot and killed — Nanye-hi believed all people should live together in peace. At a young age she was given the name Ghighau, or Beloved Woman, by the Cherokees, and went on to have a powerful and influential position in treaty talks.  She advocated for peace until her death.

Winnie Wong

Winnie Wong is a co-founder of the People for Bernie and creator of the #FeelTheBern hashtag. She was also an organizer for the Occupy Wall Street movement and Women’s March on Washington.

Addie Wyatt

Addie Wyatt was the first black woman elected to serve as vice president of a major labor union in the meatpacking industry. In the ’60s she marched with Martin Luther King on Washington, Selma and elsewhere. In 1974, she was one of the founders of the Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), the country’s only national organization for union women. She is also a founding member of the National Organization of Women (NOW).

Source: USA Today

National Scholarship Providers Association Introduces the NSPA Exchange During National Scholarship Month
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National Scholarship Month, sponsored by the National Scholarship Providers Association (NSPA), is a national campaign designed to raise awareness of the vital role scholarships play in reducing student loan debt and expanding access to higher education.

To celebrate, the National Scholarship Providers Association (NSPA) has announced the launch of the NSPA Exchangethe first and only scholarship metric database.

Thanks to a partnership with the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation, the NSPA Exchange was created to serve as a central access point for scholarship provider data. Currently, the database is home to metrics from over 1,300 organizations, allowing members to search details about peer providers by location, compare scholarship award amounts, eligibility criteria, program staff size, and more. All information is kept in a secure, cloud-based, centralized database maintained through a custom administration system.

“Our goal for the NSPA Exchange is to ultimately define best practices and industry standards for scholarship providers.” says Nicolette del Muro, Senior Director, Membership and Strategic Initiatives at NSPA.

“With this database, members now have the data they need to make strategic decisions. For example, of the over 15,000 scholarships in the Exchange database, the average application is open for 90 days. And 75% of these scholarships open in the months of November, December, and January. This offers applicants a relatively short window of time to apply for all scholarships. Insight like this could help a provider determine to open their application outside of the busy season or encourage them to make their scholarship criteria and requirements available online in advance of the application open date.”

“The NSPA Exchange is a great resource for IOScholarships as the information is constantly updated and enables members to review and update their own organization’s scholarship data”, said María Fernanda Trochimezuk, Founder of IOScholarships and Individual Affiliate Member at NSPA. “IOScholarships also uses scholarships from the Exchange in our own Scholarship Search, and we trust these scholarships are safe for students, vetted, and current offerings.

To learn more about this exciting new NSPA initiative click here –  Launching a New Member Service: The NSPA Exchange or visit www.scholarshipproviders.org. For more details on how to sponsor the NSPA Exchange, contact Nicolette del Muro Senior Director, Membership and Strategic Initiatives at ndelmuro@scholarshipproviders.org.

ABOUT THE NATIONAL SCHOLARSHIP PROVIDERS ASSOCIATION (NSPA)

The mission of the National Scholarship Providers Association is to advance the collective impact of scholarship providers and the scholarships they award. Currently serving over 2,000 individuals, they are dedicated to supporting the needs of professionals administering scholarships in colleges and universities, non-profit, foundations and businesses. Membership in the NSPA provides access to networking opportunities, professional development, and scholarship program resources.

ABOUT IOSCHOLARSHIPS

By conducting a free scholarship search at IOScholarships.com, STEM minority and underrepresented students gain access to a database of thousands of STEM scholarships worth over $48 million. We then narrow this vast array of financial aid opportunities down to a manageable list of scholarships for which students actually qualify, based on the information they provide in their IOScholarships.com profile. They can then review their search results, mark their favorites, and sort their list by deadline, dollar amount and other criteria. We also offer a scholarship organizer which is completely free to use, just like our scholarship search. There are scholarships out there for diverse students in STEM. So take advantage of National Scholarship Month and search for available scholarships today!

For more information about IOScholarships visit www.ioscholarships.com

Why Women Are Turning Away From MBAs
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Asian woman standing on stairs wearing a grey suit

Despite the coronavirus pandemic, business school applications are booming. MBA providers have been grappling with record numbers and increasing class sizes to accommodate a rush of executives seeking to improve their management credentials.

However, the gender divide persists. Demand among men for MBA places has been much stronger than among women, raising concerns that years of progress towards greater inclusion in business education is at risk of regressing.

(Image Credit – Financial Times)

The Forté Foundation, which lobbies for gender equality in education, found last year that the proportion of women enrolled in MBAs at their 52 member schools remained unchanged compared with 2019. Although almost half of schools managed to break the 40 per cent barrier in 2020, improvements in female representation across the membership had stalled. Female enrolment in full-time business programmes had been inching up in recent years as admissions teams promoted female alumni, and schools offered scholarships specifically for women and targeted sectors where women hold more of the management roles.

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Female enrolment in full-time business programmes had been inching up in recent years as admissions teams promoted female alumni, and schools offered scholarships specifically for women and targeted sectors where women hold more of the management roles.

When Forté was formed in 2001, it calculated that less than 28 per cent of MBA students in the US were women. A third of full-time MBA students at member schools were women in the autumn of 2013 and that rose to nearly 39 per cent of the group in 2019.

“There is a concern that the progress that has been made will go into reverse,” Elissa Sangster, Forté’s chief executive, says. “Concern has been higher among women about returning to full-time study during a pandemic, given that the jobs market may be far harder after graduation,” she says. The financial risk is often the biggest factor for female MBA applicants, she adds, and suggests the most effective change schools can make is cutting the price tag for those considering a return to formal education.

Read the full article at Financial Times.

How to Apply for Higher Education Careers – Revised Edition
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How to Apply for Higher Education Careers promo

“How to Apply for Higher Education Careers – Revised Edition” is a free ebook for anyone interested in getting a job in higher education.

If you’re starting your career or considering a career change, this ebook dives into what’s needed to apply for higher ed jobs: understanding the difference between a curriculum vitae and a resume, drafting a career-change resume, and checking if your resume can pass the 10-second test. The revised edition includes cover letter writing tips and candid advice from higher ed professionals, including representatives in HR and recruiting.

Download the ebook for strategies to tackle that crucial early step of putting yourself out there to secure your ideal job in higher ed.

Getting Girls Into STEM by Improving Education for Everyone
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young girl in stem discussing STEM education for everyonefor the Young science challenge

ByAsia A. Eaton, Psychology Today

Although women make up about half of the U.S. workforce, they have long been underrepresented in many STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and math).

Given that boys and girls perform similarly in STEM, this means a lot of STEM talent is being left untapped. Until we are successful at including diverse women and girls in STEM, we will be unable to address STEM labor shortages or stay globally competitive in research and development.

Our failure to include all available STEM talent in our workforce is even more dire for women of color. For example, Hispanic women represent 7 percent of the total U.S. workforce, but just 2 percent of STEM workers.

Various efforts have attempted to address these gender gaps in the last few decades, including the creation of STEM toys targeted at girls, large-scale research efforts, government funding, and afterschool programming. Despite this, the gaps haven’t narrowed as quickly as needed. In a 2022 review in the journal Social Issues and Policy Review, Drs. Sophie Kuchynka, Luis Rivera, and I explore (1) why these gaps persist and (2) ways to bridge them in K-12 education through policy and practice.

Why Do Gender Gaps in STEM Persist?
Features of the systems we live in and of our own social and psychological functioning serve to keep gender gaps in STEM alive.

1. Macrosystem influences.

Macrosystems, like our educational, economic, and justice systems, uphold gender stereotypes about the superiority of boys and men in STEM. STEM textbooks, for example, disproportionately portray male role models in STEM, sending the message that STEM is for boys. Further, system-justifying myths perpetuated in the media, such as the protestant work ethic and the myth of meritocracy, lead people to believe that the representation of men vs. women in STEM is just, and a result of differences in interest, aptitude, or hard work.

2. Microsystem influences.

The macrosystems we live in influence the smaller social systems closer to us (microsystems), like our families, schools, and peer groups. They also affect our individual psychology—how we see, interpret, and act on our social worlds.

Being raised in a world where STEM is associated with boys and men may implicitly lead parents to use less scientific language with daughters compared to sons, for example. It can also affect the amount of air time boys vs. girls get to work out their ideas in STEM classrooms. Eventually, these messages can be internalized by girls, negatively affecting their STEM self-image, interest, and participation.

How to Improve STEM Education for Everyone
Based on our review of macrosystem and microsystem factors that sustain gender-STEM inequities, we make several recommendations for K-12 STEM policy and practice to optimize success for all children.

In terms of practice, we recommend:

  • Classrooms be designed to promote relational and collaborative learning. Teachers should emphasize gender-inclusive classroom norms that promote positive working relations between girls and boys.
  • Classes should teach the history of gender inequality and bias so teachers and students can actively work to create equitable and inclusive STEM environments.
  • Teachers should encourage cooperation between children, and vary the roles students are assigned so they do not automatically adopt traditional gender roles in the classroom.
  • Teachers should promote active learning and growth mindset strategies. Cross-discipline evidence indicates that active learning, rooted in constructivist theories, is more beneficial in STEM education.
  • STEM should be reframed as helping students achieve communal goals through scientific collaboration. Emphasizing socially-meaningful aspects of STEM can help stimulate STEM interest in girls, because they tend to place more value on communal than dominance goals.
  • Classes can utilize near-peer mentorship programs, which pair students with similar mentors slightly more advanced than them. These near-peer mentors can be especially important for marginalized students who often feel isolated or excluded in STEM.
  • Schools should expand STEM evaluation metrics beyond traditional and standardized tests to include the assessment of skills like motivation, empathy, problem-solving, and adaptability, which are closely tied to positive educational outcomes.

Click here to read the full article on Psychology Today.

Scholarship Connoisseur Encourages Students to Apply for STEM Scholarships and Internship Opportunities Now
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IOScholarships is the first of its kind scholarship and financial education platform for minority and underrepresented STEM students. The technology has been designed with a streamlined user-friendly interface that offers great functionality to help high school, undergraduate and graduate students find scholarships and internship opportunities. IOScholarships proprietary matching algorithm can match students with life-changing scholarships where their diverse background is valued.

“Now is the time for students to apply for college scholarships,” said María Fernanda Trochimezuk, Founder of IOScholarships. “While there are many scholarships that have qualifications like a minimum 3.5 GPA, there are just as many that have lower GPA requirements or don’t even take GPA into consideration at all.”

GPA is an important factor for getting scholarships but is not the only thing that’s important. Schools are looking for dedicated students, who contribute to their community or are involved in STEM organizations or activities. They want to see leadership and perseverance, and while these can sort of be reflected in a GPA, they mostly shine through in extracurriculars.

The majority of the scholarships featured on IOScholarships come directly from corporations and organizations, rather than solely from competitive university pools – thereby maximizing the number of opportunities students have to earn funding for their education. There’s plenty of money that goes unused every year, students just have to search for it.

Each month IO Scholarships adds hundreds of new curated scholarships to its database and posts “The Scholarship of the Week” on its Instagram social media accounts(@IOScholarships), making it easy to find new scholarship opportunities.

In addition to providing scholarships, the IOScholarships platform features a scholarship organizer, news articles designed to provide guidance on how to apply for scholarships, and money saving tips. The platform also offers a Career Aptitude Quiz designed to help students identify the degrees and professions that best fit their skills.

For more information about IOScholarships visit www.ioscholarships.com or for weekly STEM scholarships email maria.fernanda@ioscholarships.com.

10 Ways to Tell if Online Education is Right For You
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Pensive african woman using laptop computer while sitting at home with cup of coffee

Online education has become a popular topic of conversation across the country. Even before the global pandemic, nearly 1 in 5 college students reported that they had taken at least one course online.

The massive adoption of online education during 2020 has only accelerated these trends and has inspired many students to ask if online education might be right for them, even as more traditional learning forms begin to return.

Online education opens many doors for students, empowering them to complete their studies on a more flexible schedule that is often friendlier towards other obligations, such as existing jobs or childcare. “Should I go to college online?” is a question many students are asking themselves. It helps to review important criteria that provide a good indication that a particular student is ready to become an online student.

What is Online School Like?

Online college will have many similarities with more traditional learning environments. Instructors will create content-rich courses that students can engage with and examine the material presented to prepare them for their degrees. Students have tests and papers to determine their understanding of the material along with opportunities to work on group projects with other students and create networks of peers through their school.

However, since online school can often be completed on an independent schedule, many students find that they need greater amounts of discipline to ensure they stay on top of course material. Without the physical act of having to attend classes and engage with the professor and fellow students in real life, it can be easy to get more distracted during class time or fall behind on the course material.

Online education offers some tremendous opportunities for students who want to earn degrees with greater flexibility and with the ability to read and study at home or another location of choice. This requires some unique characteristics and preparation steps.

Signs you are ready to become an online student

Are you ready to become an online student? Maybe, especially if …

You have the organizational skills needed to excel

To excel in an online learning environment, you will need to have quality organizational skills. Not only do you need to keep track of the dates and times of lectures, projects, exams, and papers without the visual triggers and personal reminders you would get in an in-person environment, but you also need to make sure that you have the space needed to study and keep track of all your books and materials. Students studying in person might find themselves walking over to their library when needed, attending lectures in a focused hall or classroom, and meeting up with fellow students for meals. This does not happen online, so you need to be organized to create a study space and schedule that benefits you.

You are self-disciplined in your studies

Without the external forces that drive your studies found in-person, you need to make sure that you have the self-discipline to keep yourself on track. Regularly logging into your classroom and any discussion forums offered for the section can make it easier to track important dates and keep you on top of the material. Before you make the commitment to online learning, make sure you have the self-discipline to will drive you to succeed.

You can remain focused in classes and on your studies

When you attend a class from the comfort of your couch, potential distractions abound. With your email open alongside the lecture and the fridge right in the other room, it becomes easy to find reasons and excuses to step away from the class for just a moment and lose track of what is going on. When you log in to attend classes, you need to make sure you will have the discipline to remain focused on the material in front of you throughout the presentation.

You are willing to ask for help

With a digital class, there are no options to hang back after class to speak to a professor privately about a question regarding the material. Instead, you need to make more of an effort, connecting with the instructor through emails or their other preferred means of communication. If you want to thrive in a digital learning environment, make sure you feel comfortable asking questions if they should arise, reassuring yourself that you will not allow misunderstandings to fester.

You are self-motivated

There are two main types of motivation—internal and external. External motivation helps to entice people towards specific desired behavior through outside rewards or punishments. Internal motivation, however, comes from the person’s individual goals and dreams that help to drive them to complete the task at hand.

Online learners will perform best if they carry a high degree of self-motivation. Since they will have to work particularly hard at remaining on task and keeping up with the schedule of classes and assignments, those who do not have self-motivation to finish the degree or program will begin to struggle with completing their goals.

You know that flexibility and freedom will benefit you

For many prospective students, the freedom and flexibility offered by virtual learning sound particularly enticing. Going to college online allows them to take classes when their schedules allow and study on their own time. For some students, however, this level of freedom and flexibility can be detrimental to their studies, resulting in students who end up procrastinating. Before becoming an online student, you should carefully consider whether this level of freedom and flexibility is for you. Will it benefit you and your learning style? Or will make it harder for you to reach your goals?

You enjoy virtual interaction

To succeed in an online learning environment, you also need to make sure that you actually enjoy virtual interaction. Classrooms and interacting with other students offer many benefits for students, including the ability to form study groups, network, and work together on group projects. If your classroom is digital, chances are that many of these interactions will be online, as well.

A successful online student, therefore, will not mind needing to meet and coordinate with professors and fellow students via a computer. They feel comfortable scheduling mutually agreeable times to connect through one of the different video conferencing platforms.

You feel confident and comfortable with technology

As a student, you also want to make sure that you feel comfortable with the technology itself. Many digital classrooms need a few different components, and teachers may use a multi-featured platform or a few different platforms to answer these needs. For example, professors and students will need to be able to:

  • Post and view lectures
  • Manage and submit assignments
  • Collaborate with fellow students
  • Connect with the professor virtually

Even if you have not used a particular type of technology before, the mark of a good online student will be a willingness to experiment with it, try it out, and learn how it works. If you feel unsure navigating technological inventions and trying out new platforms, you may find it a challenge to successfully engage with online learning easily and take advantage of all that the course has to offer.

You enjoy the opportunity to learn independently

Many students find that they enjoy learning independently. From the time they were children, they enjoyed investigating, in their backyard or in books, the questions that sparked their interest. These types of students enjoy diving into new material, digesting it a bit, turning it over in their minds, and then learning how to make it their own.

Although online learning contains many of the same components as traditional learning, including access to an expert in the field and a classroom of other excited and interested students, much of online learning does consist of a self-learning environment. Conversations with professors and students generally need to be more planned and less spontaneous. If the classes themselves are recorded, instead of live, there also may not be opportunities to ask questions during the lecture itself—often these students submit questions to the professor after they watched their video.

Since students in this position do not gain the same opportunities to learn in this more group-style environment, they will engage with the material more independently.

They might watch and rewatch a lecture and pair it with readings from their books, followed by submitting questions to their professors based on the material that they struggled with. To succeed, students need to adapt to a more independent style of learning, taking ownership of the classes and the material and ensuring that they understand what they need to know.

Read the complete article posted on Post University.

16 Black women who shaped history
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black women making history - Rosa Parks

By Madeline Merinuk, Today

One of the best ways to get inspired is to examine the stories of courage and strength of others. As part of Together We Rise, a 31-day package highlighting amazing Black people, experiences, allies, and communities that shape America and make it what it is today, we’ve compiled a list of Black women who have made historic impacts in our nation and the world as a whole.

The history-making Black women included in this group defied odds, broke boundaries and left special marks of excellence in their communities, paving the way for other Black women to do the same.

Elizabeth Freeman (unknown-1829)
Freeman, also known as Mum Bett, was a nurse and midwife who successfully sued Massachusetts for her freedom in 1781, becoming the first African-American enslaved woman to win a freedom suit in the state. Her suit helped lead to the permanent abolition of slavery in Massachusetts altogether.

Ona Judge (1773-1848)
Ona Judge, known by the Washingtons as Oney, was a mixed woman born into an enslaved family on Mt. Vernon and brought to Philadelphia to serve at the President’s House. On May 21, 1796, a 22-year-old Ona successfully escaped her enslavement to President George Washington while he and Mrs. Washington ate dinner. She fled to New Hampshire.

Harriet Tubman (unknown-1913)
American abolitionist Harriet Tubman is most known for her efforts to move slaves to liberation in the Underground Railroad, a network of antislavery activists. Her legacy is indelible in the movement to abolish slavery, as she is documented to have made approximately 13 trips through the Underground Railroad to lead dozens of slaves to freedom — and never got caught, despite a $40,000 reward for her capture.

Ida B. Wells (1862-1931)

Ida B. Wells was a prominent Black investigative journalist, educator and activist in the early civil rights movement. She was one of the founders of the NAACP (National Assocation for the Advancement of Colored People), and led a powerful anti-lynching crusade in the U.S. in the 1890s.

Rosa Parks (1913-2005)
Rosa Parks, a trailblazer known for her courageous participation in the Montgomery bus boycott, sparked a movement against racial segregation on public transit. Her defiance to give up her seat led to her arrest on Dec. 1, 1955, but sparked a revolutionary movement. The United States Congress has since honored her as “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement.”

Maya Angelou (1928-2014)
Maya Angelou has a distinct voice as a Black writer and activist. She left her legacy with a large collection of memoirs, poems, essays and plays. She rose to fame in 1969 after the publication of “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,” one of her autobiographies that details her early years as a young Black woman.

Nina Simone (1933-2003)
Nina Simone possessed a unique raspy voice and had a massive impact on the jazz community, as well as continued involvement in the civil rights movement. In her early years, she changed her name from Eunice Kathleen Waymon, her birth name, to her new alias, Nina Simone, so she could disguise herself from her family while trying to make a career in jazz as a pianist and singer. She rose to fame and recorded more than 40 albums between 1958 and 1974.

Audre Lorde (1934-1992)
Audre Lorde made incredible contributions to feminist literature. In her writings, she highlights her experience being a Black lesbian woman and confronts issues of racism, homophobia, classism and misogyny, giving voice to other Black female writers and activists.

Aretha Franklin (1942-2018)
“Queen of Soul” Aretha Franklin was ranked ninth in Rolling Stone’s “100 Greatest Artists of All Time” twice and it’s said that no one understood soul music better than Aretha. She also was the first female artist to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Marsha P. Johnson (1945-1992)
Marsha P. Johnson, born Malcom Michaels Jr., was the first American self-identified drag queen. She was one of the first gay liberation activists and one of the most prominent figures of the Stonewall riots in 1969. When asked what the “p” in her name stood for, she responded, “pay it no mind,” and continued to use that phrase when asked about her gender identity.

Click here to read the full article on Today.

Women’s education narrowing gender pay gap, but shift in childcare needed
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college student celebrating

By Ashleigh Webber, Personnel Today

The Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) found that since the mid-1990s women of working age have gone from being 5 percentage points less likely, to 5 percentage points more likely to have a university degree than men.

The 40% earnings gap identified its report is around 13 percentage points, or 25%, lower than it was in the mid-1990s.

However, women are still less likely to be in paid work than men (83.5% of women and 93% of men), and work fewer hours per week than men if they are employed (34 hours a week on average, compared with 42).

Women in paid work earn 19% less per hour on average than men (£13.20 compared with £16.30).In 1995 this figure was 24% and in 2005 it was 20.5%.

The research was based on data from 2019.

Monica Costa-Dias, deputy research director at IFS, said: “Huge gender gaps remain across employment, working hours and wages. After accounting for the rapid improvement in women’s education, there has been almost no progress on gender gaps in paid work over the past quarter-century.

“Working-age women in the UK are now more educated than their male counterparts and it seems unlikely that we can rely on women becoming more and more educated to close the existing gaps.”

The Women and men at work report, part of the IFS Deaton Review of Inequalities, also finds that:

  • The hourly wage gap between men and women is now bigger for those with degrees or A-level-equivalent qualifications than for those with lower qualifications. In fact, the minimum wage has helped reduce pay inequality in lower-paid roles
  • Of working-age adults with GCSEs or less, 26.5% of women do not work for pay compared with 9.5% of men
  • Working-age women do more than 50 hours a month more unpaid work (including both childcare and housework) than men
  • Gaps in employment and hours increase substantially upon becoming a parent, with women switching to more “family friendly” but lower paying occupations, or part time work
  • Women have more career breaks and spend more years working part-time, which contributes to them having lower hourly earnings further down the line.

“However, the gender gap in total earnings in the UK is almost twice as large as in some other countries which suggests the gender earnings gap is heavily influenced by the policy environment and cultural and social norms. For example, women are likely to take on more childcare even when they are the highest earner in the household, and a number of other countries also have more generous parental leave policies than the UK.”

Mark Franks, director of welfare at the Nuffield Foundation, which funded the research, said: “Differences in labour market participation, hours worked and hourly pay act together to lead to large and persistent inequalities in labour market outcomes between men and women in the UK. Some of these differences will originate from choices made by individuals and families relating to career and childcare decisions.

“However, the gender gap in total earnings in the UK is almost twice as large as in some other countries which suggests the gender earnings gap is heavily influenced by the policy environment and cultural and social norms. For example, women are likely to take on more childcare even when they are the highest earner in the household, and a number of other countries also have more generous parental leave policies than the UK.”

Click here to read the full article on Personnel Today.

Dr. Mary Bethune Honored As First Black Woman With Statue In D.C.’S Statuary Hall
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Members of the public view the newly unveiled statue of Mary McLeod Bethune at the News-Journal Center in Daytona Beach on Oct. 12. It's slated to move to the U.S. Capitol's National Statuary Hall early next year. Nigel Cook/News-Journal/USA TODAY NETWORK via Reuters Co

By Erika Stone, The Black Wall Street Times

Dr. Mary Bethune, a pioneering civil rights activist from Florida, is finally getting her due.

The educator, who opened a school for Black children in 1904, will be honored as the first Black woman with a statue in the United States’ Statuary Hall in Washington D.C. It follows the statue’s unveiling in her home state of Florida.

The statue of Dr. Bethune in the nation’s capital will replace a statue of a former confederate general. The iconic Statuary Hall holds two statues of renowned citizens from each state. Dr. Bethune was nominated for the honor by Florida governor Ron DeSantis.

“Dr. Bethune embodies the very best of the Sunshine State — Floridians and all Americans can take great pride in being represented by the great educator and civil rights icon,” noted US Rep. Kathy Castor of Florida, who attended the Florida unveiling.

A trailblazer, educator, an presidential advisor
Dr. Bethune, the daughter of two slaves, founded the Daytona Beach Literary and Industrial School for Training Negro Girls in 1904. The school later transitioned into Bethune-Cookman University, a Historically Black College and University. Dr. Bethune also fought on behalf of womens’ rights, campaigning for voter registration after the suffrage movement won women the right to vote in 1920.

Dr. Bethune also served as an educational advisor to five Presidents. She served as the director of the National Youth Administration’s Office of Negro Affairs under President Franklin Roosevelt, who, along with his wife Eleanor, considered her a friend.

“Dr. Bethune was an amazing trailblazer,” said Nancy Lohman, Board president of the Dr. Mary Bethune Statuary Fund, Inc, in a statement to CNN. “She fought for African American rights, women’s rights. When she saw a problem, she got involved to help create a solution.”

Click here to read the full article on The Black Wall Street Times.

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